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Day: 19 June 2022

Asahi Shimbun Digital

<CNET Japan>アップルストア従業員、米国で初の労組結成へ–メリーランド州で

 米メリーランド州ボルチモア近郊にあるAppleストアの従業員らが、労働組合の結成を投票で可決した。米国時間6月18日の発表で明らかになった。米国に270店舗以上ある同社ストアで初の労組結成となる。 ロサンゼルスのAppleストア提供:Apple  The New York TimesやWashington Postなどの記事によると、国際機械工・航空宇宙労働者協会(IAMAW)への参加について、65人の従業員が賛成票、33人が反対票を投じたという。  米国の複数のAppleストアで労組結成の動きが加速しており、今回の投票結果は、Appleの店舗従業員にとって転換点となるものだ。 That feeling when ⁦you form the first union at Apple in America. Congrats, ⁦@acoreunion⁩!Welcome to the Machinists Union! #1u pic.twitter.com/U7JzwXcoz7— Machinists Union (@MachinistsUnion) June 19, 2022  労組結成の動きが加速しているのは、Appleだけではない。Googleの従業員らは、Alphabet Workers Union(AWU)の結成を2021年初頭に開始した。この動きは、ミズーリ州の契約業者グループにも広がり、3月には同州でGoogle Fiberの契約業者が、初となる労働組合を結成し、AWUと契約した。  Amazonの倉庫で働く従業員らの間でも4月、複数の大きな労組結成の動きがあった。ニューヨーク州スタテンアイランドの倉庫で働く従業員らは、米国におけるAmazonの従業員として初めて労組結成を可決した。一方、アラバマ州の従業員らは、労組結成に失敗した。  大手ハイテク企業の多くが、労組結成に抵抗している。Amazonは、自社倉庫での労組結成投票の1つを妨害しようとしたとして米連邦当局に批判され、Appleも、労組結成の動きを阻止しようとしたとして批判されている。 この記事は海外Red Ventures発の記事を朝日インタラクティブが日本向けに編集したものです。

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How bulldozers became a vehicle of injustice in India

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, Getty ImagesBulldozers, invented 100 years ago, have been used across the world to build homes, offices, roads and other infrastructures.But in recent years, many say, they have become a weapon in the hands of India's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government to destroy homes and livelihoods of the minority Muslim community. And nowhere are these excavators more visible than in the politically crucial Uttar Pradesh state.Their latest outing was last Sunday when authorities in the city of Prayagraj (formerly Allahabad) tore down the home of political activist Javed Mohammad, alleging that it had been illegally built - a claim his family denied.Critics said the real reason behind the demolition had nothing to do with the alleged illegality of the building and that he was being punished for being a vocal critic of the government.A day before the demolitions, police had arrested him, accusing him of being the "mastermind" behind violent protests in the city by Muslims against controversial remarks about the Prophet Muhammad by Nupur Sharma, a former BJP spokesperson. Ms Sharma was earlier suspended from the party, but the protesters were demanding her arrest. BJP leaders have defended their actions, saying "nothing is done against the law". But the demolitions have been criticised in India and made headlines globally, with critics saying there is "only the thinnest veneer of legality covering this official action" and that they "are bulldozing over the very spirit of the law".In a rare move, former judges and eminent lawyers wrote a letter to the country's chief justice saying the use of bulldozers was "an unacceptable subversion of the rule of law" and urged the court to act against the "violence and repression against Muslim citizens".In a strongly-worded column in the Indian Express newspaper, former federal minister Kapil Sibal wrote that "a bulldozer has no relevance to illegal structures, but has relevance to who I am and what I stand for". "It has relevance to what I say in public. It has relevance to my beliefs, my community, my being, my religion. It has relevance to my voice of dissent. When a bulldozer razes my home to the ground, it seeks to demolish not just the structure I built, but my courage to speak up." The use of bulldozers has also been challenged in the Supreme Court and the top court has said "their use had to be in accordance with law and could not be retaliatory". This flagging of the menace the bulldozers have become hasn't come too soon.India home demolitions: 'You broke a family'Who is Nupur Sharma?Earlier this year, a curious sight greeted me when I was covering the assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh as Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath made a bid for re-election. (He won the polls and is now serving his second term.)At a roadshow, a group of supporters had brought little yellow toy bulldozers.Waving the plastic excavators in the air, they danced before television cameras, singing "woh bulldozerwala baba phir se aayega (that bulldozer baba will return)"."Bulldozer baba" was a name given to Mr Adityanath by the local press, but it stuck after his main rival Akhilesh Yadav used it at a rally. Mr Yadav had used it derisively, but senior journalist Sharat Pradhan says "the BJP has turned it to their advantage because it adds to his strongman image". In many towns, he said, bulldozers were parked at Mr Adityanath's election rallies and after he won, the machines were paraded before the state assembly building in celebration.Image source, Getty ImagesSenior journalist Alok Joshi says Mr Adityanath first ordered the use of bulldozers punitively two years ago against notorious criminal Vikas Dubey, who was accused of killing eight policemen, and gangster-politician Mukhtar Ansari.Videos of demolitions of their properties were replayed on national television and won the government some admiration from citizens "for taking a firm stand against criminals". "But it has now been increasingly used as a tactic to intimidate the opposition and government's critics, especially Muslims," Mr Joshi says.Before the demolitions in Saharanpur and Prayagraj, Mr Adityanath presided over a meeting where he said that bulldozers would continue to crush "criminals and mafia". Mr Pradhan says that from "a symbol of firm administration", the government has now turned bulldozers into "a potent weapon, overriding the law of the land and using it to cement its hate politics against Muslims"."This is how a local tough behaves. It's like saying, 'You throw a stone at me, I will demolish your home. I will teach a lesson to your entire family.' "But the law of the land does not allow you to run a bulldozer on anyone's property. If a family member commits a murder, can you hang an entire family for that? But this is a government acting as a prosecutor, judge, jury and executioner," he adds.India in deeper crisis over Prophet Muhammad rowHow Islamophobia is hurting India's foreign policyThe use of bulldozers may have resulted in a global outcry but, Mr Joshi says, it has brought immense political mileage to Mr Adityanath and even won approval from Prime Minister Narendra Modi. During a visit to the state last December, Mr Modi said, "When the bulldozer runs over the mafia… it runs over the illegal building, but the person who is nurturing it [also] feels the pain."Following the prime minister's remarks, bulldozers have been used in the aftermath of religious violence earlier in the year in the state of Madhya Pradesh and in the capital, Delhi, disproportionately targeting Muslims by destroying their homes, shops and small businesses."No court order says that demolish someone's home, even if they have committed a crime and even after they have been convicted. So when the authorities send a bulldozer, it basically carries a political message - anyone who protests against us will be bulldozed," Mr Joshi says. This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.More on this storyIndia home demolitions: 'You broke a family'Beaten and humiliated for being a Muslim in India

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How bulldozers became a vehicle of injustice in India

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, Getty ImagesBulldozers, invented 100 years ago, have been used across the world to build homes, offices, roads and other infrastructures.But in recent years, many say, they have become a weapon in the hands of India's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government to destroy homes and livelihoods of the minority Muslim community. And nowhere are these excavators more visible than in the politically crucial Uttar Pradesh state.Their latest outing was last Sunday when authorities in the city of Prayagraj (formerly Allahabad) tore down the home of political activist Javed Mohammad, alleging that it had been illegally built - a claim his family denied.Critics said the real reason behind the demolition had nothing to do with the alleged illegality of the building and that he was being punished for being a vocal critic of the government.A day before the demolitions, police had arrested him, accusing him of being the "mastermind" behind violent protests in the city by Muslims against controversial remarks about the Prophet Muhammad by Nupur Sharma, a former BJP spokesperson. Ms Sharma was earlier suspended from the party, but the protesters were demanding her arrest. BJP leaders have defended their actions, saying "nothing is done against the law". But the demolitions have been criticised in India and made headlines globally, with critics saying there is "only the thinnest veneer of legality covering this official action" and that they "are bulldozing over the very spirit of the law".In a rare move, former judges and eminent lawyers wrote a letter to the country's chief justice saying the use of bulldozers was "an unacceptable subversion of the rule of law" and urged the court to act against the "violence and repression against Muslim citizens".In a strongly-worded column in the Indian Express newspaper, former federal minister Kapil Sibal wrote that "a bulldozer has no relevance to illegal structures, but has relevance to who I am and what I stand for". "It has relevance to what I say in public. It has relevance to my beliefs, my community, my being, my religion. It has relevance to my voice of dissent. When a bulldozer razes my home to the ground, it seeks to demolish not just the structure I built, but my courage to speak up." The use of bulldozers has also been challenged in the Supreme Court and the top court has said "their use had to be in accordance with law and could not be retaliatory". This flagging of the menace the bulldozers have become hasn't come too soon.India home demolitions: 'You broke a family'Who is Nupur Sharma?Earlier this year, a curious sight greeted me when I was covering the assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh as Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath made a bid for re-election. (He won the polls and is now serving his second term.)At a roadshow, a group of supporters had brought little yellow toy bulldozers.Waving the plastic excavators in the air, they danced before television cameras, singing "woh bulldozerwala baba phir se aayega (that bulldozer baba will return)"."Bulldozer baba" was a name given to Mr Adityanath by the local press, but it stuck after his main rival Akhilesh Yadav used it at a rally. Mr Yadav had used it derisively, but senior journalist Sharat Pradhan says "the BJP has turned it to their advantage because it adds to his strongman image". In many towns, he said, bulldozers were parked at Mr Adityanath's election rallies and after he won, the machines were paraded before the state assembly building in celebration.Image source, Getty ImagesSenior journalist Alok Joshi says Mr Adityanath first ordered the use of bulldozers punitively two years ago against notorious criminal Vikas Dubey, who was accused of killing eight policemen, and gangster-politician Mukhtar Ansari.Videos of demolitions of their properties were replayed on national television and won the government some admiration from citizens "for taking a firm stand against criminals". "But it has now been increasingly used as a tactic to intimidate the opposition and government's critics, especially Muslims," Mr Joshi says.Before the demolitions in Saharanpur and Prayagraj, Mr Adityanath presided over a meeting where he said that bulldozers would continue to crush "criminals and mafia". Mr Pradhan says that from "a symbol of firm administration", the government has now turned bulldozers into "a potent weapon, overriding the law of the land and using it to cement its hate politics against Muslims"."This is how a local tough behaves. It's like saying, 'You throw a stone at me, I will demolish your home. I will teach a lesson to your entire family.' "But the law of the land does not allow you to run a bulldozer on anyone's property. If a family member commits a murder, can you hang an entire family for that? But this is a government acting as a prosecutor, judge, jury and executioner," he adds.India in deeper crisis over Prophet Muhammad rowHow Islamophobia is hurting India's foreign policyThe use of bulldozers may have resulted in a global outcry but, Mr Joshi says, it has brought immense political mileage to Mr Adityanath and even won approval from Prime Minister Narendra Modi. During a visit to the state last December, Mr Modi said, "When the bulldozer runs over the mafia… it runs over the illegal building, but the person who is nurturing it [also] feels the pain."Following the prime minister's remarks, bulldozers have been used in the aftermath of religious violence earlier in the year in the state of Madhya Pradesh and in the capital, Delhi, disproportionately targeting Muslims by destroying their homes, shops and small businesses."No court order says that demolish someone's home, even if they have committed a crime and even after they have been convicted. So when the authorities send a bulldozer, it basically carries a political message - anyone who protests against us will be bulldozed," Mr Joshi says. This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.More on this storyIndia home demolitions: 'You broke a family'Beaten and humiliated for being a Muslim in India

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How bulldozers became a vehicle of injustice in India

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, Getty ImagesBulldozers, invented 100 years ago, have been used across the world to build homes, offices, roads and other infrastructures.But in recent years, many say, they have become a weapon in the hands of India's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government to destroy homes and livelihoods of the minority Muslim community. And nowhere are these excavators more visible than in the politically crucial Uttar Pradesh state.Their latest outing was last Sunday when authorities in the city of Prayagraj (formerly Allahabad) tore down the home of political activist Javed Mohammad, alleging that it had been illegally built - a claim his family denied.Critics said the real reason behind the demolition had nothing to do with the alleged illegality of the building and that he was being punished for being a vocal critic of the government.A day before the demolitions, police had arrested him, accusing him of being the "mastermind" behind violent protests in the city by Muslims against controversial remarks about the Prophet Muhammad by Nupur Sharma, a former BJP spokesperson. Ms Sharma was earlier suspended from the party, but the protesters were demanding her arrest. BJP leaders have defended their actions, saying "nothing is done against the law". But the demolitions have been criticised in India and made headlines globally, with critics saying there is "only the thinnest veneer of legality covering this official action" and that they "are bulldozing over the very spirit of the law".In a rare move, former judges and eminent lawyers wrote a letter to the country's chief justice saying the use of bulldozers was "an unacceptable subversion of the rule of law" and urged the court to act against the "violence and repression against Muslim citizens".In a strongly-worded column in the Indian Express newspaper, former federal minister Kapil Sibal wrote that "a bulldozer has no relevance to illegal structures, but has relevance to who I am and what I stand for". "It has relevance to what I say in public. It has relevance to my beliefs, my community, my being, my religion. It has relevance to my voice of dissent. When a bulldozer razes my home to the ground, it seeks to demolish not just the structure I built, but my courage to speak up." The use of bulldozers has also been challenged in the Supreme Court and the top court has said "their use had to be in accordance with law and could not be retaliatory". This flagging of the menace the bulldozers have become hasn't come too soon.India home demolitions: 'You broke a family'Who is Nupur Sharma?Earlier this year, a curious sight greeted me when I was covering the assembly elections in Uttar Pradesh as Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath made a bid for re-election. (He won the polls and is now serving his second term.)At a roadshow, a group of supporters had brought little yellow toy bulldozers.Waving the plastic excavators in the air, they danced before television cameras, singing "woh bulldozerwala baba phir se aayega (that bulldozer baba will return)"."Bulldozer baba" was a name given to Mr Adityanath by the local press, but it stuck after his main rival Akhilesh Yadav used it at a rally. Mr Yadav had used it derisively, but senior journalist Sharat Pradhan says "the BJP has turned it to their advantage because it adds to his strongman image". In many towns, he said, bulldozers were parked at Mr Adityanath's election rallies and after he won, the machines were paraded before the state assembly building in celebration.Image source, Getty ImagesSenior journalist Alok Joshi says Mr Adityanath first ordered the use of bulldozers punitively two years ago against notorious criminal Vikas Dubey, who was accused of killing eight policemen, and gangster-politician Mukhtar Ansari.Videos of demolitions of their properties were replayed on national television and won the government some admiration from citizens "for taking a firm stand against criminals". "But it has now been increasingly used as a tactic to intimidate the opposition and government's critics, especially Muslims," Mr Joshi says.Before the demolitions in Saharanpur and Prayagraj, Mr Adityanath presided over a meeting where he said that bulldozers would continue to crush "criminals and mafia". Mr Pradhan says that from "a symbol of firm administration", the government has now turned bulldozers into "a potent weapon, overriding the law of the land and using it to cement its hate politics against Muslims"."This is how a local tough behaves. It's like saying, 'You throw a stone at me, I will demolish your home. I will teach a lesson to your entire family.' "But the law of the land does not allow you to run a bulldozer on anyone's property. If a family member commits a murder, can you hang an entire family for that? But this is a government acting as a prosecutor, judge, jury and executioner," he adds.India in deeper crisis over Prophet Muhammad rowHow Islamophobia is hurting India's foreign policyThe use of bulldozers may have resulted in a global outcry but, Mr Joshi says, it has brought immense political mileage to Mr Adityanath and even won approval from Prime Minister Narendra Modi. During a visit to the state last December, Mr Modi said, "When the bulldozer runs over the mafia… it runs over the illegal building, but the person who is nurturing it [also] feels the pain."Following the prime minister's remarks, bulldozers have been used in the aftermath of religious violence earlier in the year in the state of Madhya Pradesh and in the capital, Delhi, disproportionately targeting Muslims by destroying their homes, shops and small businesses."No court order says that demolish someone's home, even if they have committed a crime and even after they have been convicted. So when the authorities send a bulldozer, it basically carries a political message - anyone who protests against us will be bulldozed," Mr Joshi says. This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.More on this storyIndia home demolitions: 'You broke a family'Beaten and humiliated for being a Muslim in India

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Mountain gorillas: The ripple effect of conservation

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingBBC climate editor Justin Rowlatt visits Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, to find out what mountain gorilla conservation can tell us about protecting other species.I could tell she knew I was there. But the burly matriarch of the Nshongi mountain gorilla family was ignoring me as she plucked branches from a bush and lazily munched on the leaves, like a teenager working her way through a packet of crisps. Then suddenly a baby gorilla tumbled through the undergrowth and past us both. She looked across and our eyes met. Instinctively I lowered my gaze. She wasn't hostile, she just wanted to make sure I knew my place. What was surprising was that I understood exactly what her glance meant. And, even more astonishing, I knew she understood me too.It is that visceral sense of connection between species which makes visiting mountain gorillas in the wild such a profound experience. Spend just a few minutes in the company of a family of gorillas and the concept of "us and them" dissolves. You meet as equals.This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.Yet until fairly recently, the world's mountain gorillas appeared to be on an inexorable path to extinction. Sir David Attenborough recently described how his famous encounter with a mountain gorilla family in 1979 had been "tinged with sadness". It was one of the most memorable experiences of his life, he said, but he worried he might be meeting "the last of their kind".Sir David understands that extinction is part of the evolutionary process - some species die away as others evolve. The problem is species are currently becoming extinct far more rapidly than is usual in evolutionary history. Scientists estimate species extinction is happening at least 100 times more than the normal "background rate". They warn the world is experiencing an extinction event comparable in scale with the disaster that saw the dinosaurs wiped out. This matters because biodiversity underpins so much of the functioning of the natural world - from the food we eat to the air we breathe and the water we drink. It also helps protect us from pollution, floods and climate breakdown.This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.But UN negotiations to stem the tide of extinction in Geneva earlier this year ended in deadlock. This week delegates meet in Nairobi to try to reboot the talks. The aim is to agree 21 targets, including protecting at least 30% of the world's land and seas by 2030.The hope is to provide a framework for a landmark international agreement under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity that will be signed by governments in Kunming in October. The ultimate goal could hardly be more lofty - for humanity to "live in harmony with nature" by 2050.Mountain Gorillas: A Conservation SuccessWe talk a lot about the climate crisis, but much less about the biodiversity crisis. Justin Rowlatt asks what the success of mountain gorilla conservation tells us about protecting other species. Watch on BBC iPlayer now.So, does the fate of the mountain gorilla hold lessons for how we can conserve threatened species?When Sir David visited the family of gorillas there were around 600 mountain gorillas left. The species was listed as "critically endangered". Mountain gorillas cannot survive in captivity so protection in the wild was their only hope.They live in two groups. One in the Virunga Forest, which straddles the borders between Uganda, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the other in the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest in Uganda.They faced the same challenges as many threatened species do today - the habitat they live in was rapidly being cleared by farmers, conservation efforts were being hampered by conflict, and they were sometimes killed by poachers.But 40 years later, the population is now more than 1,000-strong and growing. The species is now listed as just "endangered" - a significant improvement. In fact, there has been something of a baby boom in the past couple of years. Five mountain gorilla infants were born in Bwindi in late 2020 - an unprecedented number. Just three were born in the whole of 2019. BBCTourism really does help wild animals if it is done rightDr Gladys Kalema ZikusokaUganda Wildlife AuthorityThe secret of this success? Dr Gladys Kalema Zikusoka was the Uganda Wildlife Authority's first vet in 1995, then she set up the charity Conservation Through Public Health. Perhaps surprisingly, she says, carefully managed tourism has been crucial."Tourism really does help wild animals if it is done right." But only, she clarifies, if the income from tourism really does flow into the local community. A gorilla encounter figures high on many bucket lists, and tourist lodges and rest houses, craft stalls and trekking centres, now encircle the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest national park."When I first started out there were only about five lodges, now there are as many as 70," says Dr Gladys. "The lodges have created jobs, the NGOs have created jobs." Gorilla tourism has boosted the entire regional economy, she says, and now the revenues it generates covers much of the cost of running Uganda's wildlife protection service.Bwindi's chief warden, Nelson Guma, agrees the income from tourism has been crucial because it underpins the support of the local community. "These communities live next to the park. And so we feel that they should be a part of the conservation, and they should get benefits from conservation."Visiting a gorilla family is not cheap. You pay $600 per person, Uganda's gorillas receive up to 40,000 visits a year. Local communities get a 20% cut of the revenue from the park.And mountain gorilla conservation has another huge benefit. To protect the gorillas you need to protect the entire forest ecosystem. The Bwindi Impenetrable Forest is one of the most biodiverse places on earth, so thousands - possibly tens of thousands - of other species are conserved as well. What's more, the cash the gorillas help earn has been used to neutralise other threats. Mountain gorillas used occasionally to be caught in the traps poachers set to catch deer, wild pigs and other animals. They would either sell their catch as bush meat or use it to help feed their families. BBCNow we are the ambassadors of the parkVincent NshmarairwGorilla OrganisationBut once the gorillas became a lucrative tourist attraction, the authorities could afford to make poachers an offer that was hard to refuse - get caught hunting in the park and you'll go to jail, they were told. Stay out and we'll find work for you either in the park or on land provided by charities."Now we are the ambassadors of the park," says Vincent Nshmarairw proudly. He's a former poacher who works for an agricultural project funded by the UK-based Gorilla Organisation charity. Mr Nshmarairw hopes gorillas will be the key to his family's future prosperity. "My children are all at school," he tells me. "And with time maybe they can get jobs from the park."Rafiki, Uganda's rare silverback mountain gorilla, killed by huntersTourism is not without problems. Tourists can disturb animals and disrupt their natural behaviour, it generates pollution and waste, and can undermine local cultures. But most of the world's major conservation organisations, including the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Conservation International and the World Wildlife Fund, now support carefully managed ecotourism as a useful conservation tool. Tourism is also rarely a complete solution. Despite their economic heft, the mountain gorilla population remains vulnerable. The national parks that the two mountain gorilla populations live in are large, but they represent a tiny fraction of the vast jungle that used to cover the region and, as the gorilla population grows, space is becoming an issue."We're definitely seeing that gorilla families are more crowded," says Tara Stoinski who runs the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund.Gorillas are "bumping into each other more", warns Ms Stoinski. These encounters are associated with aggression and fights, sometimes with tragic consequences: "We're seeing higher rates of infanticide. Infants can oftentimes be killed when these families come together." Research by the Gorilla Fund suggests that, in some areas of the Virunga Forest, the growth in the gorilla population is slowing for the first time in decades. "We would love to see this population grow but in order to do so, there's really going to need to be more habitat available to them," says Ms Stoinski.The answer would be more land set aside for the gorillas - exactly what the UN says needs to happen worldwide. But taking productive land out of action costs money and the developing world says they need financial support to do it. This is one of the main sticking points in negotiations. Developing countries are demanding the developed world pay them $100bn a year to support conservation.The success of mountain gorilla conservation shows we can save species from the brink of extinction, says the UN's head of biodiversity, Elizabeth Mrema. She is confident the delegates in Nairobi will be able to find compromises when they meet this week. The question for the world is how much energy and resources we are willing to put into the effort to protect biodiversity. Ms Mrema issues a stark warning: "We've been told by scientists we only have this century to solve the biodiversity crisis. There is no planet B," she says.All photos subject to copyright

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Mountain gorillas: The ripple effect of conservation

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingBBC climate editor Justin Rowlatt visits Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda, to find out what mountain gorilla conservation can tell us about protecting other species.I could tell she knew I was there. But the burly matriarch of the Nshongi mountain gorilla family was ignoring me as she plucked branches from a bush and lazily munched on the leaves, like a teenager working her way through a packet of crisps. Then suddenly a baby gorilla tumbled through the undergrowth and past us both. She looked across and our eyes met. Instinctively I lowered my gaze. She wasn't hostile, she just wanted to make sure I knew my place. What was surprising was that I understood exactly what her glance meant. And, even more astonishing, I knew she understood me too.It is that visceral sense of connection between species which makes visiting mountain gorillas in the wild such a profound experience. Spend just a few minutes in the company of a family of gorillas and the concept of "us and them" dissolves. You meet as equals.This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.Yet until fairly recently, the world's mountain gorillas appeared to be on an inexorable path to extinction. Sir David Attenborough recently described how his famous encounter with a mountain gorilla family in 1979 had been "tinged with sadness". It was one of the most memorable experiences of his life, he said, but he worried he might be meeting "the last of their kind".Sir David understands that extinction is part of the evolutionary process - some species die away as others evolve. The problem is species are currently becoming extinct far more rapidly than is usual in evolutionary history. Scientists estimate species extinction is happening at least 100 times more than the normal "background rate". They warn the world is experiencing an extinction event comparable in scale with the disaster that saw the dinosaurs wiped out. This matters because biodiversity underpins so much of the functioning of the natural world - from the food we eat to the air we breathe and the water we drink. It also helps protect us from pollution, floods and climate breakdown.This video can not be playedTo play this video you need to enable JavaScript in your browser.But UN negotiations to stem the tide of extinction in Geneva earlier this year ended in deadlock. This week delegates meet in Nairobi to try to reboot the talks. The aim is to agree 21 targets, including protecting at least 30% of the world's land and seas by 2030.The hope is to provide a framework for a landmark international agreement under the UN Convention on Biological Diversity that will be signed by governments in Kunming in October. The ultimate goal could hardly be more lofty - for humanity to "live in harmony with nature" by 2050.Mountain Gorillas: A Conservation SuccessWe talk a lot about the climate crisis, but much less about the biodiversity crisis. Justin Rowlatt asks what the success of mountain gorilla conservation tells us about protecting other species. Watch on BBC iPlayer now.So, does the fate of the mountain gorilla hold lessons for how we can conserve threatened species?When Sir David visited the family of gorillas there were around 600 mountain gorillas left. The species was listed as "critically endangered". Mountain gorillas cannot survive in captivity so protection in the wild was their only hope.They live in two groups. One in the Virunga Forest, which straddles the borders between Uganda, Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the other in the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest in Uganda.They faced the same challenges as many threatened species do today - the habitat they live in was rapidly being cleared by farmers, conservation efforts were being hampered by conflict, and they were sometimes killed by poachers.But 40 years later, the population is now more than 1,000-strong and growing. The species is now listed as just "endangered" - a significant improvement. In fact, there has been something of a baby boom in the past couple of years. Five mountain gorilla infants were born in Bwindi in late 2020 - an unprecedented number. Just three were born in the whole of 2019. BBCTourism really does help wild animals if it is done rightDr Gladys Kalema ZikusokaUganda Wildlife AuthorityThe secret of this success? Dr Gladys Kalema Zikusoka was the Uganda Wildlife Authority's first vet in 1995, then she set up the charity Conservation Through Public Health. Perhaps surprisingly, she says, carefully managed tourism has been crucial."Tourism really does help wild animals if it is done right." But only, she clarifies, if the income from tourism really does flow into the local community. A gorilla encounter figures high on many bucket lists, and tourist lodges and rest houses, craft stalls and trekking centres, now encircle the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest national park."When I first started out there were only about five lodges, now there are as many as 70," says Dr Gladys. "The lodges have created jobs, the NGOs have created jobs." Gorilla tourism has boosted the entire regional economy, she says, and now the revenues it generates covers much of the cost of running Uganda's wildlife protection service.Bwindi's chief warden, Nelson Guma, agrees the income from tourism has been crucial because it underpins the support of the local community. "These communities live next to the park. And so we feel that they should be a part of the conservation, and they should get benefits from conservation."Visiting a gorilla family is not cheap. You pay $600 per person, Uganda's gorillas receive up to 40,000 visits a year. Local communities get a 20% cut of the revenue from the park.And mountain gorilla conservation has another huge benefit. To protect the gorillas you need to protect the entire forest ecosystem. The Bwindi Impenetrable Forest is one of the most biodiverse places on earth, so thousands - possibly tens of thousands - of other species are conserved as well. What's more, the cash the gorillas help earn has been used to neutralise other threats. Mountain gorillas used occasionally to be caught in the traps poachers set to catch deer, wild pigs and other animals. They would either sell their catch as bush meat or use it to help feed their families. BBCNow we are the ambassadors of the parkVincent NshmarairwGorilla OrganisationBut once the gorillas became a lucrative tourist attraction, the authorities could afford to make poachers an offer that was hard to refuse - get caught hunting in the park and you'll go to jail, they were told. Stay out and we'll find work for you either in the park or on land provided by charities."Now we are the ambassadors of the park," says Vincent Nshmarairw proudly. He's a former poacher who works for an agricultural project funded by the UK-based Gorilla Organisation charity. Mr Nshmarairw hopes gorillas will be the key to his family's future prosperity. "My children are all at school," he tells me. "And with time maybe they can get jobs from the park."Rafiki, Uganda's rare silverback mountain gorilla, killed by huntersTourism is not without problems. Tourists can disturb animals and disrupt their natural behaviour, it generates pollution and waste, and can undermine local cultures. But most of the world's major conservation organisations, including the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), Conservation International and the World Wildlife Fund, now support carefully managed ecotourism as a useful conservation tool. Tourism is also rarely a complete solution. Despite their economic heft, the mountain gorilla population remains vulnerable. The national parks that the two mountain gorilla populations live in are large, but they represent a tiny fraction of the vast jungle that used to cover the region and, as the gorilla population grows, space is becoming an issue."We're definitely seeing that gorilla families are more crowded," says Tara Stoinski who runs the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund.Gorillas are "bumping into each other more", warns Ms Stoinski. These encounters are associated with aggression and fights, sometimes with tragic consequences: "We're seeing higher rates of infanticide. Infants can oftentimes be killed when these families come together." Research by the Gorilla Fund suggests that, in some areas of the Virunga Forest, the growth in the gorilla population is slowing for the first time in decades. "We would love to see this population grow but in order to do so, there's really going to need to be more habitat available to them," says Ms Stoinski.The answer would be more land set aside for the gorillas - exactly what the UN says needs to happen worldwide. But taking productive land out of action costs money and the developing world says they need financial support to do it. This is one of the main sticking points in negotiations. Developing countries are demanding the developed world pay them $100bn a year to support conservation.The success of mountain gorilla conservation shows we can save species from the brink of extinction, says the UN's head of biodiversity, Elizabeth Mrema. She is confident the delegates in Nairobi will be able to find compromises when they meet this week. The question for the world is how much energy and resources we are willing to put into the effort to protect biodiversity. Ms Mrema issues a stark warning: "We've been told by scientists we only have this century to solve the biodiversity crisis. There is no planet B," she says.All photos subject to copyright

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Global inflation: Five ways US rate rise will affect you

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, ReutersThe US central bank has announced its biggest rate hike in nearly 30 years as it ramps up its battle to bring soaring consumer prices under control. It lifted the rate the Federal Reserve charges banks to borrow by three quarters of a percentage point.The consequences will be felt in nearly every corner of the economy - in the US and abroad.Here are five ways the rate rise in the US will affect you.More expensive mortgages and other loansThe immediate impact is in the US, where people will face higher borrowing costs for mortgages, credit cards, student loans and other debt.The average rate on the popular 30-year fixed home loan has already surged to nearly 6% - its highest level since 2008. For the person buying a median-priced home in the US, that means monthly payments have gone up by about $600 since the start of the year. "I wish I had started looking earlier," says Delores Robinson, a retired educator from Ohio, who bought a new apartment this month.Ms Robinson says she was relieved to lock in a relatively low rate, though it was higher than it was when she started her search. But for some buyers, the rising rates will push purchases out of reach.The National Association of Realtors expects home sales in the US to fall 9% this year. House price squeeze: 'I bid dozens of times but lost'House prices up 12% but rises expected to slowHow the interest rate rise might affect youThat drop might feel painful to people prevented from purchasing, but it is also expected to cool price growth to 5% in 2022, after double digit gains in recent years.If that happens, it will help bring down inflation, a sign the Fed's moves are working.Smaller pensions and more expensive Uber ridesWhen rates lift off, it tends to prompt a dramatic reshuffling of investments. And with general economic concerns rising, those moves have been especially pronounced.For those with money in the stock market, like people with 401k retirement accounts, that has meant seeing a sharp slide in the value of their investments. The S&P 500 has sunk more than 20% since the start of January - a milestone known as a bear market - while the Nasdaq has shed nearly a third of its value. Image source, ReutersRisky assets, like cryptocurrencies, have seen their prices drop too, which stock exchanges outside the US have also been hit.Investment firms are also pulling back from riskier ventures, demanding profitability from companies like Uber that have been operating at a loss for years. What's happening to Bitcoin?Global stock markets fall as economy fears growThat means people are likely to face higher prices for things like taxi rides and deliveries - or see such firms fold, as was the case for a number of start-ups that emerged in New York promising 15-minute groceries."In times of uncertainty, investors look for safety," Uber boss Dara Khosrowshahi wrote in a letter to staff last month about the steps the firm would take to try to boost its bottom line, including slowing hiring. "It's clear that the market is experiencing a seismic shift and we need to react accordingly." Job market slowdown and recession riskAs demand cools, it is putting an end to the booming post-pandemic labour market, which has seen companies competing fiercely for workers, allowing new hires to command higher pay and other perks and encouraging many to switch jobs for better.Property giants Redfin and Compass this week announced plans to reduce their staffs by hundreds this week, citing the downturn and higher rates. A slew of big companies like Uber, including Amazon, Walmart, Tesla and Spotify, have also announced plans to slow or halt hiring.Image source, Getty ImagesThe head of the US central bank, Jerome Powell, has said he is hopeful the economy will avoid mass job losses, noting that the US labour market remains very tight - with nearly double the openings to people hunting for positions.But the economy was already facing challenges as inflation raises costs for companies and cuts into people's spending power.Growth already contracted in the first three months of the year. And while that was attributed to a quirk in international trade data, other indicators, like retail sales, have begun to darken. As higher rates collide with a weakening economy, analysts say the bank risks bringing on a sustained slowdown, also known as a recession.Stronger dollarThe US dollar has risen 10% this year, as the Fed's moves prompting investors to shift money to America in pursuit of higher returns, boosting demand for its currency.For Americans planning trips to places like the UK, where the value of a pound sank below $1.20 this week - its lowest since the pandemic - it's a silver lining.But elsewhere, the rise of the US currency means more expensive imports of commodities like energy and food, which often trade in dollars. That adds to economic strains, especially if a government holds a lot of debt in dollars.Image source, Getty Images"Emerging markets tend to be the markets that really do stand to suffer the most," says Fiona Cincotta, market analyst at City Index.Higher rates abroadThose dynamics mean the US is not hiking in a vacuum.Dozens of other countries have also announced rate rises in recent months, including the Bank of England, Switzerland. Australia and Canada.Weak pound puts the squeeze on holiday spendingUK interest rates hit highest level for 13 yearsMany are fighting their own battles with inflation. But they are also taking cues from what's happening in the world's largest economy.In countries like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, where currencies are tied to the dollar, the impact of US rate rises is almost immediate, with banks hiking in lockstep, as they try to contain an outflow of funds to the US.As those moves start to be felt on the ground, the economic story in the US will continue to be closely watched.More on this storyUK interest rates hit highest level for 13 yearsWeak pound puts the squeeze on holiday spendingWhat's happening to Bitcoin?House price squeeze: 'I bid dozens of times but lost'World Bank warns of recession risk due to Ukraine warUS makes biggest interest rate rise since 1994

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Global inflation: Five ways US rate rise will affect you

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, ReutersThe US central bank has announced its biggest rate hike in nearly 30 years as it ramps up its battle to bring soaring consumer prices under control. It lifted the rate the Federal Reserve charges banks to borrow by three quarters of a percentage point.The consequences will be felt in nearly every corner of the economy - in the US and abroad.Here are five ways the rate rise in the US will affect you.More expensive mortgages and other loansThe immediate impact is in the US, where people will face higher borrowing costs for mortgages, credit cards, student loans and other debt.The average rate on the popular 30-year fixed home loan has already surged to nearly 6% - its highest level since 2008. For the person buying a median-priced home in the US, that means monthly payments have gone up by about $600 since the start of the year. "I wish I had started looking earlier," says Delores Robinson, a retired educator from Ohio, who bought a new apartment this month.Ms Robinson says she was relieved to lock in a relatively low rate, though it was higher than it was when she started her search. But for some buyers, the rising rates will push purchases out of reach.The National Association of Realtors expects home sales in the US to fall 9% this year. House price squeeze: 'I bid dozens of times but lost'House prices up 12% but rises expected to slowHow the interest rate rise might affect youThat drop might feel painful to people prevented from purchasing, but it is also expected to cool price growth to 5% in 2022, after double digit gains in recent years.If that happens, it will help bring down inflation, a sign the Fed's moves are working.Smaller pensions and more expensive Uber ridesWhen rates lift off, it tends to prompt a dramatic reshuffling of investments. And with general economic concerns rising, those moves have been especially pronounced.For those with money in the stock market, like people with 401k retirement accounts, that has meant seeing a sharp slide in the value of their investments. The S&P 500 has sunk more than 20% since the start of January - a milestone known as a bear market - while the Nasdaq has shed nearly a third of its value. Image source, ReutersRisky assets, like cryptocurrencies, have seen their prices drop too, which stock exchanges outside the US have also been hit.Investment firms are also pulling back from riskier ventures, demanding profitability from companies like Uber that have been operating at a loss for years. What's happening to Bitcoin?Global stock markets fall as economy fears growThat means people are likely to face higher prices for things like taxi rides and deliveries - or see such firms fold, as was the case for a number of start-ups that emerged in New York promising 15-minute groceries."In times of uncertainty, investors look for safety," Uber boss Dara Khosrowshahi wrote in a letter to staff last month about the steps the firm would take to try to boost its bottom line, including slowing hiring. "It's clear that the market is experiencing a seismic shift and we need to react accordingly." Job market slowdown and recession riskAs demand cools, it is putting an end to the booming post-pandemic labour market, which has seen companies competing fiercely for workers, allowing new hires to command higher pay and other perks and encouraging many to switch jobs for better.Property giants Redfin and Compass this week announced plans to reduce their staffs by hundreds this week, citing the downturn and higher rates. A slew of big companies like Uber, including Amazon, Walmart, Tesla and Spotify, have also announced plans to slow or halt hiring.Image source, Getty ImagesThe head of the US central bank, Jerome Powell, has said he is hopeful the economy will avoid mass job losses, noting that the US labour market remains very tight - with nearly double the openings to people hunting for positions.But the economy was already facing challenges as inflation raises costs for companies and cuts into people's spending power.Growth already contracted in the first three months of the year. And while that was attributed to a quirk in international trade data, other indicators, like retail sales, have begun to darken. As higher rates collide with a weakening economy, analysts say the bank risks bringing on a sustained slowdown, also known as a recession.Stronger dollarThe US dollar has risen 10% this year, as the Fed's moves prompting investors to shift money to America in pursuit of higher returns, boosting demand for its currency.For Americans planning trips to places like the UK, where the value of a pound sank below $1.20 this week - its lowest since the pandemic - it's a silver lining.But elsewhere, the rise of the US currency means more expensive imports of commodities like energy and food, which often trade in dollars. That adds to economic strains, especially if a government holds a lot of debt in dollars.Image source, Getty Images"Emerging markets tend to be the markets that really do stand to suffer the most," says Fiona Cincotta, market analyst at City Index.Higher rates abroadThose dynamics mean the US is not hiking in a vacuum.Dozens of other countries have also announced rate rises in recent months, including the Bank of England, Switzerland. Australia and Canada.Weak pound puts the squeeze on holiday spendingUK interest rates hit highest level for 13 yearsMany are fighting their own battles with inflation. But they are also taking cues from what's happening in the world's largest economy.In countries like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, where currencies are tied to the dollar, the impact of US rate rises is almost immediate, with banks hiking in lockstep, as they try to contain an outflow of funds to the US.As those moves start to be felt on the ground, the economic story in the US will continue to be closely watched.More on this storyUK interest rates hit highest level for 13 yearsWeak pound puts the squeeze on holiday spendingWhat's happening to Bitcoin?House price squeeze: 'I bid dozens of times but lost'World Bank warns of recession risk due to Ukraine warUS makes biggest interest rate rise since 1994

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Global inflation: Five ways US rate rise will affect you

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, ReutersThe US central bank has announced its biggest rate hike in nearly 30 years as it ramps up its battle to bring soaring consumer prices under control. It lifted the rate the Federal Reserve charges banks to borrow by three quarters of a percentage point.The consequences will be felt in nearly every corner of the economy - in the US and abroad.Here are five ways the rate rise in the US will affect you.More expensive mortgages and other loansThe immediate impact is in the US, where people will face higher borrowing costs for mortgages, credit cards, student loans and other debt.The average rate on the popular 30-year fixed home loan has already surged to nearly 6% - its highest level since 2008. For the person buying a median-priced home in the US, that means monthly payments have gone up by about $600 since the start of the year. "I wish I had started looking earlier," says Delores Robinson, a retired educator from Ohio, who bought a new apartment this month.Ms Robinson says she was relieved to lock in a relatively low rate, though it was higher than it was when she started her search. But for some buyers, the rising rates will push purchases out of reach.The National Association of Realtors expects home sales in the US to fall 9% this year. House price squeeze: 'I bid dozens of times but lost'House prices up 12% but rises expected to slowHow the interest rate rise might affect youThat drop might feel painful to people prevented from purchasing, but it is also expected to cool price growth to 5% in 2022, after double digit gains in recent years.If that happens, it will help bring down inflation, a sign the Fed's moves are working.Smaller pensions and more expensive Uber ridesWhen rates lift off, it tends to prompt a dramatic reshuffling of investments. And with general economic concerns rising, those moves have been especially pronounced.For those with money in the stock market, like people with 401k retirement accounts, that has meant seeing a sharp slide in the value of their investments. The S&P 500 has sunk more than 20% since the start of January - a milestone known as a bear market - while the Nasdaq has shed nearly a third of its value. Image source, ReutersRisky assets, like cryptocurrencies, have seen their prices drop too, which stock exchanges outside the US have also been hit.Investment firms are also pulling back from riskier ventures, demanding profitability from companies like Uber that have been operating at a loss for years. What's happening to Bitcoin?Global stock markets fall as economy fears growThat means people are likely to face higher prices for things like taxi rides and deliveries - or see such firms fold, as was the case for a number of start-ups that emerged in New York promising 15-minute groceries."In times of uncertainty, investors look for safety," Uber boss Dara Khosrowshahi wrote in a letter to staff last month about the steps the firm would take to try to boost its bottom line, including slowing hiring. "It's clear that the market is experiencing a seismic shift and we need to react accordingly." Job market slowdown and recession riskAs demand cools, it is putting an end to the booming post-pandemic labour market, which has seen companies competing fiercely for workers, allowing new hires to command higher pay and other perks and encouraging many to switch jobs for better.Property giants Redfin and Compass this week announced plans to reduce their staffs by hundreds this week, citing the downturn and higher rates. A slew of big companies like Uber, including Amazon, Walmart, Tesla and Spotify, have also announced plans to slow or halt hiring.Image source, Getty ImagesThe head of the US central bank, Jerome Powell, has said he is hopeful the economy will avoid mass job losses, noting that the US labour market remains very tight - with nearly double the openings to people hunting for positions.But the economy was already facing challenges as inflation raises costs for companies and cuts into people's spending power.Growth already contracted in the first three months of the year. And while that was attributed to a quirk in international trade data, other indicators, like retail sales, have begun to darken. As higher rates collide with a weakening economy, analysts say the bank risks bringing on a sustained slowdown, also known as a recession.Stronger dollarThe US dollar has risen 10% this year, as the Fed's moves prompting investors to shift money to America in pursuit of higher returns, boosting demand for its currency.For Americans planning trips to places like the UK, where the value of a pound sank below $1.20 this week - its lowest since the pandemic - it's a silver lining.But elsewhere, the rise of the US currency means more expensive imports of commodities like energy and food, which often trade in dollars. That adds to economic strains, especially if a government holds a lot of debt in dollars.Image source, Getty Images"Emerging markets tend to be the markets that really do stand to suffer the most," says Fiona Cincotta, market analyst at City Index.Higher rates abroadThose dynamics mean the US is not hiking in a vacuum.Dozens of other countries have also announced rate rises in recent months, including the Bank of England, Switzerland. Australia and Canada.Weak pound puts the squeeze on holiday spendingUK interest rates hit highest level for 13 yearsMany are fighting their own battles with inflation. But they are also taking cues from what's happening in the world's largest economy.In countries like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, where currencies are tied to the dollar, the impact of US rate rises is almost immediate, with banks hiking in lockstep, as they try to contain an outflow of funds to the US.As those moves start to be felt on the ground, the economic story in the US will continue to be closely watched.More on this storyUK interest rates hit highest level for 13 yearsWeak pound puts the squeeze on holiday spendingWhat's happening to Bitcoin?House price squeeze: 'I bid dozens of times but lost'World Bank warns of recession risk due to Ukraine warUS makes biggest interest rate rise since 1994

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In photos: Throwback to life on Indian streets

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, Courtesy Raghu Rai and PHOTOINKIn the age of mobile phones and social media, everyone is a bit of a photographer, drawing hordes of fans on their Instagram accounts. But a gallery in India recently held an exhibition looking back on the time-honoured tradition of street photography.A collection of 23 photographs, the black and white streetscapes were shot by Ketaki Sheth, Pablo Bartholomew, Raghu Rai and Sooni Taraporevala - some of the country's most acclaimed photographers.The photographs span the time between 1970 and 2000, and offer a view of the golden period of street photography in India, when photographers - tucked behind their cameras - would roam the streets, observing, engaging and capturing the nuances of daily life. "It was a time when permission and consent were not negotiated in writing and the photographer could photograph with tacit understanding from passers-by," according to Delhi-based PHOTOINK, which organised the show. "Photographing the street has increasingly become a complex and contested space today, surveillance and privacy issues notwithstanding. Everyone with a mobile phone is now a street photographer."Here's a selection of some of the pictures from the show: Image source, Courtesy Raghu Rai and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Sooni Taraporevala and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Pablo Bartholomew and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Ketaki Sheth and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Raghu Rai and PHOTOINKMore on this storyPhotographic treasures from IndiaFrom India to UK: An immigrant's snapshots from 1950s

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In photos: Throwback to life on Indian streets

SharecloseShare pageCopy linkAbout sharingImage source, Courtesy Raghu Rai and PHOTOINKIn the age of mobile phones and social media, everyone is a bit of a photographer, drawing hordes of fans on their Instagram accounts. But a gallery in India recently held an exhibition looking back on the time-honoured tradition of street photography.A collection of 23 photographs, the black and white streetscapes were shot by Ketaki Sheth, Pablo Bartholomew, Raghu Rai and Sooni Taraporevala - some of the country's most acclaimed photographers.The photographs span the time between 1970 and 2000, and offer a view of the golden period of street photography in India, when photographers - tucked behind their cameras - would roam the streets, observing, engaging and capturing the nuances of daily life. "It was a time when permission and consent were not negotiated in writing and the photographer could photograph with tacit understanding from passers-by," according to Delhi-based PHOTOINK, which organised the show. "Photographing the street has increasingly become a complex and contested space today, surveillance and privacy issues notwithstanding. Everyone with a mobile phone is now a street photographer."Here's a selection of some of the pictures from the show: Image source, Courtesy Raghu Rai and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Sooni Taraporevala and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Pablo Bartholomew and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Ketaki Sheth and PHOTOINKImage source, Courtesy Raghu Rai and PHOTOINKMore on this storyPhotographic treasures from IndiaFrom India to UK: An immigrant's snapshots from 1950s